Author Guidelines

Response will examine contributions and manuscripts for all sections of the Journal on submission to the Editor.  A variety of contributions and manuscripts are welcome and accepted for consideration.

Contributions may include:

  • Guest Editorials;
  • Points of View articles;
  • E-letters to the Editor;
  • Review articles;
  • Case Reports;
  • Media interest articles;
  • Conferences and updates; or
  • Other submissions.

Manuscripts may include:

  • Literature reviews; or
  • Clinical discussions.

Contributions and manuscripts must be presented as described below.  Any contribution or manuscript presented to the Editor that is incomplete or not set out according to this notice will be returned to the author(s) without review.

Contributions and manuscripts can be submitted to the Journal via Email, with attachment formatted in Microsoft® Word.


Authors are invited to make contributions to complementary features of the journal as outlined below;

Guest Editorials: are normally sought by the Editor as authoritative comments or opinions on current issues in paramedicine and related fields.  Readers or professionals are welcome to present contributions to the Editor for consideration.  Guidelines for manuscripts must be followed when preparing a contribution and a word limit of 1500 to 2000 words applies.

Points of View articles: are welcomed on any topic of interest and relevance to the paramedic practice.  These articles generally provide a personal view point of the issue, but with appropriate referencing and justification to support this view.  Such articles may stimulate debate about relevant topics.

E-Letters to the Editor: are welcomed on any issue related to paramedic practice.  Letters must be relevant, brief and concise.  References should not exceed seven. Word Limit: 500 maximum.

Review: provides a synopsis of recent literature (journal article, book, etc..,) in an abstract format.  Submissions are welcome.  Word Limit: 250 – 1000 words.  Also allows publishers and authors of books, computer software, videos etc.., to submit their productions to the journal for professional review.  Submission of items does not guarantee publication. All products submitted become the property of Response.

Case Reports: provide an overview and discussion of interesting cases attended in the line of work.  These should provide an introduction to the case, accompanied with a short discussion about the issues and treatments presented.  The report should be referenced appropriately (see referencing below), with a limited number of key references.

Media interest articles: provides a summary of a recent media article featuring paramedic practice issues; this could be a good news story, interesting medical case or relevant medical item; should include reference for source of media story.  Word limit: 500 maximum.

Conferences and Updates: Pamphlets and notices can be submitted to the Editor for consideration for publication. Preference will be given to Paramedics Australasia sponsored or run events.

Other submissions: These can include jokes, lighter note articles, or cartoons, information on member awards or news, details on new technology, other interest articles.


Manuscripts must be presented in the following manner;

Title Page: must be concise and informative (not more than 85 characters including spaces).  If the title exceeds this limit, a short running title of 85 characters (including spaces) must be provided.

Author(s)’s name: listed as First Name, Middle Initial(s) (optional) and family name.  No titles or qualifications are to be listed at this point, e.g.: Janet J Walker.

Abstract: concise abstract of not more than 150 words.  An abstract is a summary of the main points of the submitted paper.

Keywords: 3 to 10 (listed in alphabetical order) must be provided below the abstract to assist indexers in cross-indexing the article.  For example, paramedic, out-of-hospital, cardiac, hypotension etc.  The keywords relate directly to the main concepts of the paper.

Body of paper: must use headings.  All papers must commence with an introduction, followed by a discussion and finish with a conclusion.  Research papers must include methodology (described in enough detail to permit work to be replicated) and results (must be presented in a logical order in text tables and/or illustrations)

Content of paper: may be literature review or case study.  Original research should be submitted to the electronic Journal of Emergency Primary Health Care in the first instance.  A wide range of opinion is always sought and encouraged.  Reasonable length is between 2,000 to 5,000 words including heading, abstracts, keywords, body and references.

Photographs and diagrams: should be included to enhance the presentation of the paper.  For previously published items, authors must present a written copyright permission document from the original owners allowing Response to reproduce the items.

Reference: all articles must be scientifically referenced and all papers must conform to the referencing style of Response described below.  A reference page must be attached to the end of the paper.

Bibliography: Pertinent literature which has been read but not referred to directly may be listed in a bibliography. This should appear with authors’ surnames in alphabetical order. This is to be attached as a separate page to the reference page.

Acknowledgments: persons, grant-giving organisations or others who assisted with the paper can be included.  Endorsements of goods or services are not acceptable.

About the Author(s): First name, Middle initial (optional) and Surname followed by a brief biography, including academic qualifications, professional practice, place of work, length of time in the industry and country.  The lead author should also include a ‘head and shoulders’ photograph of themselves (if available).  e.g.: Paul J. Noble, BHthSc (Paramedic) is a Paramedic with the Loch District Ambulance Service Loch Island Australia.  With multiple authors, the authors should be listed in order of contribution level.

Reprint Address: Author(s) must include a name, Email and address for reprints that may be published at the discretion of the Editor.

Contact Details (Not for publication): The name(s), address(es), phone number(s), fax number(s) and Email address(es) of the author or authors.  With multiple author, one author must be nominated as the primary contact person.


Body of paper

References are cited using Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3…etc superscript) in the order of appearance in the paper. Once cited, references maintain their first cited number.

Eg: Within Australia penetrating head injuries are rare.1

All references cited must be listed numerically at the end of the paper in the reference list.

Eg: 1. Grattan. M. (2005). Paramedical Endotracheal Intubation Response: 4: 2: 15 – 20.

Please check and recheck your references before submitting your manuscript.  The accuracy of references is the responsibility of the author.

Reference List

Publications listed in reference and/or bibliography should be double spaced and follow the style below.  Journal and book titles must be written in italics.


Surname of author, initials, year of publication (in brackets), title of article (single quotation marks), name of journal, volume and number issues separated by a colon, month publication page or pages referred to.

Eg: Charles, JT, (2006), ‘Paramedic Education’ Journal of Paramedical Response, 19: 6: May: pp. 23-29.

If the reference has four or fewer authors, cite all names.  If a reference has more than four authors, list only the first four and add et al.


Surname of author, initials, year of publication (in brackets), title of work, edition (edn)[ other than 1st], place published (city), name of publisher, page or pages referred to.

Eg. Parks, PJ, (2006), Paramedicine, 2nd Edn, Sydney, Rural Press, p. 495.

If the book has four or fewer authors, cite all names.  If a book has more than four authors, list only the first four and add et al.

From the Internet

Authors should use some Websites with caution and ensure information being quoted is correct.  If a citation is made from a website on the internet, reference should be;

Eg. Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology & Allergy. (2004). Guidelines for EpiPen Prescription. Downloaded: 20 March 2006.

Articles In Collection

Attwood, B.A.,(2006) Paramedics and Industrial Relations, in Tania, D.E. (Ed) A Collection of Views of Australian Paramedics, Melbourne, City Publications, pp 275-393.

Corporate Authors

In the instance of a book publication: International Congress of Paramedics, (2006) The Basic Education of the Professional Paramedic, London.

In the instance of a paper or article: International Congress of Paramedics (2006), The Basic Education of the Professional Paramedic, London, Position Statement.

Government Publications

South Australia Department of Health, (2005) Report into Paramedic Services in SA, Adelaide, South Australia Department of Health, Ambulance Service Unit.

Unpublished Material

This may take many forms – from an unpublished book to an anonymous letter.  In general when there is information available it should follow the style applying to published items, ie. name of author, date, title (without any distinguishing quotation marks or underlining), and place of origin.  A letter should be as comprehensively described as information allows:  A.W. Williams to P.A. Cuddon, (2005), Letter, Darwin: July 6.


The copyright of articles published in Response is held by the respective authors. Apart from personal use, if you wish to reproduce an article, permission must be sought from the author(s). If you wish to contact any of the authors, please contact the Editor.


Please see section on photo and image guidelines.


Delivery: Email:

Presentation: All items presented must be in a compatible electronic format.  Items on paper (hard copy) will not be accepted.
Email – an attachment formatted in Microsoft Word is preferred.


Authors are expected to disclose any associations that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with any submitted manuscript or contribution.  All funding sources supporting the work must be acknowledged in the acknowledgements at the end of the paper.  All affiliations with or financial involvement in any organisation or material discussed (eg employment, consultancies, stock ownership or other equity interests, patents or licensing agreements etc) must be cited in a covering letter.  The Editor during the review process will hold this letter in confidence.  If the paper is accepted, the Editor will discuss with the author(s) how to disclose this information.